A lot of people arent aware that German is the largest ancestral group in the country, says Don Heinrich Tolzmann, author of The German-American Experience. In the late 17th century, German-speaking immigrants trickled into the South Carolina colony; by mid-18th century, they arrived in a steady stream. They came from the Rheinish Palatinate (Palatines), Baden, Wuuml;rttemberg, Bavaria, Prussia, Saxony and other independent states in the old German empire, not yet unified with a national identity.
German-Swiss (the Switzers) immigrated to the Carolinas from the Swiss Cantons of Zurich, Bern and Basel. The 18th century Swiss Government considered emigration a crime that would deprive the fatherland of productive citizens and soldiers. Edicts were issued forbidding emigrants to sell their properties and depriving them forever of citizenship and land rights. Emigration continued at a steady pace.
Most emigrants sailed from Europe directly to Charleston; others migrated from Pennsylvania along the Great Wagon Road. They left Europe for many reasons: religious and political persecution, economic oppression and enticements from Newlanders transatlantic businessmen who recruited Europeans for resettlement. According to late Professor Robert L. Meriwether, USC History department head in Columbia, there are estimates that 7,500 to 8,000 Germans and German-Swiss were in South Carolina in 1765.
Most Palatines and German-Swiss immigrants paid their transatlantic passage up-front. The penniless became redemptioners, paying upon arrival, or earning passage-money by working as a servant for a number of years. Unlike indentured servants, the redemptioners usually negotiated the length of their contract with the purchaser, who might be a family member, friend or benevolent organization. Redemptioners mostly German had certain advantages over indentured servants, whose expenses were often paid and contracts negotiated by the ship captain. They also endured longer periods of servitude.
South Carolinas German-speaking colonists were hardworking, industrious citizens. They faced extreme dangers and hardships in the early years, yet they established successful farming communities and became respected merchants. Their cultural, social and political contributions impacted the Midlands in positive ways that are still evident. It is easy to recognize the last names of a few of their descendants: Claussen, Shealy, Strom, Lowman, Sease, Boozer, Wessinger, Dreher, Hutto, Fulmer, Sikes, Zeigler, Bouknight, Inabinet and Rawl.
Many German traditions began to disappear after the Civil War, but others survived and recently have gained in popularity. Its helpful to know about South Carolinas colonial past to understand the history of these German ancestors and how their behavior helped shape the state.
Early Colonization of Carolina
In 1629, King Charles I established Carolana Latin for Charles. Initial settlement attempts failed until his successor, Charles II, ascended the throne after the Great Restoration. Eight Lords Proprietors most with rank in the Peerage began governing the colony (known now as Carolina) through a charter from Charles in 1663. Granted the full prerogatives of establishing the colony, they encouraged European-American settlement with alluring incentives such as land grants, money, tools, provisions, religious freedom and political representation.
The population of Charles Towne, the first permanent European settlement in Carolina (1670), initially consisted of English settlers from Europe and the Caribbean. Charles Towne was relocated in 1680 to the tip of a peninsula called Oyster Point; the strategic location offered better defense. A primary concern was to safeguard against French, Spanish and Native American attacks.
By 1719, the colonists were disillusioned with the Lords Proprietors hostile governance and lack of protection from external foes. United, they executed a well-planned coup to overthrow the proprietors and depose Governor Robert Johnson. Reform wasnt complete until 1729, when the British Crown purchased the proprietors interests in the colony. By now, North Carolina and South Carolina were separate royal provinces.
Charles Towne grew into a multi-ethnic entrepocirc;t with Africans, French Huguenots, Scottish, Protestant Irish, Welsh and Sephardic Jews. German-speaking immigrants present since the early days of settlement integrated seamlessly into Charleston society and carved out successful niches in the mercantile, banking and artisan trades. The German Friendly Society (1766) lent assistance to newly arriving German immigrants, widows and orphans. At the forefront of political activities, the new immigrants formed the first German military company in British North America in 1755 the distinguished German Fusiliers.
Most German residents in Charles Towne were staunch Lutherans. St. Johns (1742), on Clifford Street, is among the oldest Lutheran congregations in America. St. Matthew German Lutheran Church, on King Street, was established in 1840 by a group of Germans led by General Johann (John) Andreas Wagener, the most influential German ever to settle in Charleston. He organized numerous societies including the German Colonization Society in 1848, which purchased 17,859 acres for the establishment of the town Walhalla garden of the gods. It is located in the present county seat of Oconee County at the foot of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Many society members and new German immigrants settled the new town. St. Johns German Evangelical Lutheran Church, built by master German builder John Kaufmann, played a significant role in the towns history. For a decade, Newberry College relocated to Walhalla while damage was repaired after the Civil War. Picturesque Walhalla hosts an annual Oktoberfest celebration on Main Street in October.
Townships with the largest percentage of German-speaking residents were Purrysburg, Orangeburgh, Saxe Gotha, Amelia, New Windsor and Londonborough. Other townships Boonesborough (1762) and Hillsborough (1764) attracted French-Huguenots, Welsh, Scots-Irish and Quakers.
Old Dutch Fork (associated with Orangeburgh Township) is encompassed by parts of Lexington County. Its location is inside the fork between the Broad and Saluda Rivers. Saxe Gotha stood just south of Dutch Fork. The area is named for the original Germans; Dutch is an Anglicized word for Deutsch, meaning German.
This was one of the most densely populated areas of German settlement. The immigrants first arrived in 1730 and flowed into the area over 30 years. Most emigrated from the historic German states of Baden on the east bank of the Rhine River and Wuuml;rttemberg, a rich agricultural area further east. Both areas are wine-growing regions. Several migrated from Pennsylvania.
Few of the backcountry Germans resettled in other areas. Dutch Fork industries were based around farming, livestock and lumber. The settlers retained much of their culture throughout generations. Life was hard, but there was support from church, family and community, which they valued above all things.
St. Johns Lutheran Church in Pomaria is a historic Lutheran congregation dating back to 1754. It was the first Reformed German church in the Dutch Fork. The Old White Church presently standing was used for 141 years and is on the National Register of Historic Places.
Saxe Gotha Township
Saxe Gotha Township, established in 1730 as Congaree Township, was renamed in 1735. The old German name honors the marriage of Britains Prince of Wales to Princess Augusta of the German Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Their eldest son was King George III.
The settlement was situated in present-day Lexington County, about 30 miles from Amelia Township. It traversed the Cherokee Indian Path, and the Occaneechi Path (Highway US 1). The name Saxe Gotha was changed in 1785 when Lexington District was established to honor the Massachusetts Revolutionary War battle.
Colonial German Foods
There was never a starving time in colonial South Carolina as there had been in the Jamestown colony. Being a seaport town and trading center, Charles Towne offered the Germans a wide variety of exotic, imported foodstuffs and spices. Theirs was a rice-based society; prepared dishes were accented with flavors from the West Indies, Africa and Asia. Oysters, crabs, shrimp and terrapins were abundant.
In the backcountry, German frontiersmen grew basic food crops and planted orchards for fruit. They had wild fowl, venison and fish from nearby rivers. They foraged for wild vegetables, herbs and greens. Cows provided milk and butter. Household industries included salting, pickling, smoking, drying and brewing. Alcohol was freely served and often safer than water. A bucket of beer, a bottle of rum, a draft of hard cider, or a bowl of punch lubricated any occasion. Fermented drinks with fresh fruit, especially peaches, were made in season. Many Charles Towne Germans enjoyed the refinement of fine imported wine like Madeira.
Germans were renowned for butchering and sausage-making skills; most meals were simple and based on meat. Pork is an anchor of German and South Carolina cooking. Barbecue (Germans preferred pork shoulder) and whole hog cookery hearken back to the traditions of local rural farming folk no doubt with Spanish and Native American influences. Being fond of pork with mustard, South Carolina Germans created a yellow, mustard-based sauce. Its one of four types of barbecue sauce in the state and is unique to South Carolina.
Barbecue hash is a colonial carolina tradition with origins in the Lowcountry rice culture. Pork butt, shoulder, or a whole hogs head is cooked down in broth in a large black iron kettle over an open fire. Additional ingredients are up to the cook: pork liver, onion, vinegar, hot sauce and black pepper are a few favorites. The Germans added mustard, very popular around the Midlands area. Some say wood smoke is the most important ingredient. The hash resembles thick meat gravy and is spooned over cooked rice. It is a communal food, and great for the backwoods crowd! Many local German descendants are associated with barbecue businesses and specialize in hash: Sweatman, Wise, Shealy, Hite, Sikes, Kiser and Bessinger. Be sure not to miss the photo essay on South Carolina barbecue on page 76.
The Carolina Germans make boiled dumplings with potatoes, fruit, beef and even liver. A delicious beef and liver dumpling dish in the Orangeburg, Lexington and Dutch Fork areas is called liver nips. People clamor for them as they taste so good!
Germans are partial to rabbit, white asparagus (spargel) potato pancakes (Kartoffelpuffer), applesauce and red cabbage (rotkohl). Breaded, fried chicken cutlets, nuggets and fingers, so popular in restaurants today, descend directly from the popular German schnitzel.
Foods of German origin are common in South Carolina, but this is largely unrealized because they have assimilated into American cuisine and become mainstream. Consider frankfurters, hamburger steak (not the sandwich), potato salad, egg noodles, sausages, cheesecake, jelly doughnuts, sauerkraut, pretzels, meat loaf, muenster cheese, beer, marzipan, streusel, milk gravy, casseroles, apple strudel, rye bread, pickles and gingerbread. Nuremberg, Germany is known as the gingerbread capital of the world.
The German immigrants brought traditions and customs that are enjoyed today, including St. Nicholas, advent wreaths, lebkuchen, stollen, Gluuml;hwein (mulled wine) and O Tannenbaum the beloved Christmas tree! They also introduced the Easter bunny and Easter eggs. In Germany, decorated, blown egg shells are placed outdoors on the branches of trees and bushes by the hundreds.
Shirley Rawl Seese and her husband both descend from South Carolinas German settlers. Shirley shares this unique recipe for liver dumplings. The dish has a German heritage and was a specialty in the old Dutch Fork and Sax Gotha areas. Unique to the Lexington County area, it still has many ardent fans, including those who usually wont eat liver. Shirley says the dumplings are a comfort food favorite at her Lexington restaurant, The Farmers Shed, and at covered dish suppers. To shape the savory dumplings, scrape up or nip portions of dumpling mixture from the bowl with a spoon, then drop into boiling beef stock. The word nip is of Low German or Dutch origin. In the Rheinland, liver dumplings (Leberknouml;del) are served with sauerkraut and mashed potatoes. Shirley serves them with mashed potatoes and pickled beets.
3 to 4 pound chuck roast (reserve cooking broth)
1 pound fresh cow or calf liver
1 medium onion, finely grated
1 tablespoon basil or thyme
2 teaspoons salt
Black pepper, to taste
3 cups all-purpose flour
1 teaspoon baking powder
2 large eggs
In a large pot, cook chuck roast and liver in 2 quarts water until beef is done. Remove liver from broth; grind in a meat grinder or food processor. Mix with onion, basil, salt, pepper, flour and baking powder. Mix in eggs and add enough broth to make a stiff batter. Reserve the chuck roast; keep warm. Add enough water to the leftover broth to make 2 quarts liquid. Bring to a boil. Scrape the batter out of the bowl by the spoonful; make them small or large. As they are formed, push dumplings into the hot broth, with the help of another spoon. To prevent sticking, dip the spoon into the hot broth before shaping each dumpling. Cook 10 to 15 minutes until done. Slice the chuck roast and serve with liver nips and some of the gravy. Serves 6 to 8.
Note: Calf liver is milder than cows liver.
Sweet-Sour Red Cabbage (Rotkohl)
Germans love cabbage, especially sauerkraut and rotkohl sweet-sour red cabbage. The fruity taste of apples or pears will compliment the cabbage. Vinegar preserves the cabbages red color and red currant jelly adds a touch of sweetness. You can substitute light brown sugar, or even honey. Add 2 cloves or 1/2 teaspoon toasted caraway seeds, if you enjoy the flavor. A few seasonal cranberries will add flavor and tartness too. For a main dish, saute your favorite German sausages just to brown, then add them to the covered pot of cabbage for the final 10 minutes of cooking. (Or cook and serve separately). Serve cabbage as a side dish with pork, roast duck or beef.
2 slices bacon
2 tablespoons butter or olive oil
1 medium onion, chopped
1 head red cabbage, cored, cut in 1/4-inch strips (about 2 1/2 pounds)
2 tart apples, cored, diced in small pieces
2 to 4 tablespoons red wine vinegar, or to taste
1 cup water, port, beef broth or chicken stock, or as needed
3 to 4 tablespoons red currant jelly or brown sugar, to taste
Sea salt and black pepper, to taste
Cook bacon in a large, deep saucepan; remove and reserve. Add butter to bacon drippings. Add onion to the pan; cook and stir 2 to 3 minutes until softened. Stir in cabbage; then apples, vinegar and half the water. Cover and cook on low heat about 35 minutes. Stir in jelly and remaining liquid, if needed. Cook 5 to 10 additional minutes until the cabbage is tender, yet still has texture. Taste to check seasonings; add salt and pepper, if desired.
German Potato Pancakes (Kartoffelpuffer)
For the best results, use starchy potatoes. Drain shredded potatoes in a sieve, squeezing out any moisture. The oil should be very hot before the potato mixture is added. Serve pancakes with sides of homemade applesauce and sour cream.
2 tablespoons all-purpose flour
1/4 teaspoon baking powder
1/2 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon black pepper
2 large eggs
1 small finely chopped onion or scallions
6 medium to large Yukon Gold potatoes, peeled and shredded, or russet potatoes
Canola oil or olive oil, as needed
In a large bowl, whisk together flour, baking powder, salt and pepper. Mix in egg, onion and potatoes. Heat about 1/4 cup oil in a large, heavy skillet over medium heat. Drop tablespoons of potato mixture into the hot oil. Use the back of the spoon to slightly flatten each pancake. Cook 3 to 4 minutes on each side, until golden brown and crisp. Drain and serve at once or keep in a warm oven up to 15 minutes before serving.
For more recipes, visit ColumbiaMetro.com.
Its hard out there for an IT professional. IT managers know that a lag in security preparedness will inevitably lead to disaster. The challenge is communicating this to senior management in terms they can understand and that will lead them to making it a priority. Just ask the IT team at Target, whoraised concernsto the C-Suite well before the retailer became a cautionary headline.
Security is important, but your C-suite has many moving pieces to balance: competing business initiatives, growth plans, and expenses. A good senior management team wont wait for their board of directors to tell them what to prioritise, but it doesnt help that boards are not yet fully engaged in this topic in their role as guardians of compliance.
According to PwCs State of Security 2015 survey, despite the barrage of high-profile breaches in the news, fewer than half (42%) of respondents said their board actively participates in overall security strategy, and only 36% said the board is involved in security policies.
gt;See also:The digital agenda: A CFOs secret weapon in the boardroom
Youve set up the best defense you can, but now you need more money, tools and support. Here are six steps to help you win over your senior management team in order increase their involvement and investment in IT security.1. Understand the business
Senior management will trust people who understand the short, mid and long-term objectives of the organisation. Bear in mind, its likely youll need to approach things differently if the company has a plan to move most of its business online or begin accepting credit cards for payment, for example.
Interview department managers to find out what network resources are required to meet their objectives. What failures would be particularly damaging from a reputational point of view? When youre done with this step you should have a feel for the areas of cyber security exposure that you want to address and what assets are important to keep the business running.2. Use independent verification
Once you believe youve identified what types of risks your company faces if critical systems are compromised, its time for an independent security audit to verify your beliefs.
The basic goal is to confirm exposures and to identify in more detail the areas of vulnerability. If using an independent third party to do this is too expensive, high-quality, open-source security scanning tools that you can use yourself are widely available online. This isnt as comforting to an executive as an independent audit performed by an expert, but its better than nothing.3. Figure out how to fix the problems
Now that you have thoroughly identified and independently verified where the issues are, the next step is determining what remediation consists of. This is where the rubber meets the road. Some problems are harder and more expensive to fix than others. You may need experts to help you in this process.4. Prioritise based on probability and magnitude
What are the hard costs (direct costs like hiring security experts, litigation or revenue losses) and soft costs (like reputation or time spent by internal staff) if critical systems were hacked? This is the language the C-suite understands: time and money.
Weigh those costs against the probability that something bad will happen. Youll want to address the high impact and higher probability areas first; this might seem obvious, but youd be surprised how often this doesnt happen.5. Time to sell
At this point you have a plan and you want to get approval to move forward.When you present risks, do so in terms that are specific to your business and clearly identify the potential loss and the likelihood it could happen. Avoid jargon and dont get too technical.
If you execute on all these steps, you will likely get the backing you need to get your organisation on solid cyber security footing. If you dont succeed, keep trying and make sure you document the conversation you had with the decision maker.6. Stay on top of it
Youve done all the hard work, made a strong presentation, and (hopefully) secured the budget to implement a modern, dynamic security system that addresses key concerns. But your job is far from over.
Keep your security audit reports current, so youre ready to give updates on your progress when youre called up. Periodically run free tools and follow steps 3 through 5 on a regular basis
gt;See also:Why data privacy and security should be a boardroom issue
Hackers know companies struggle with the cost and complexity of properly securing their networks, making them prime targets. Organisations need to be proactive and not wait for a cyber attack to engage.
IT security professionals have a responsibility to walk senior management through the current state of security, explain the risks using business impact terms, and execute corrective measures as soon as possible.
Sourced from Rich Barber, CFO, WatchGuard
We may not make a lot of noise about it but our FA boss is really liked at CAF and that was a great tool to use for a bid. He tried to get the team to meet CAF officials on Sunday but it seems all these things did not work.
Remember how we all went up in arms when we sniffed that the former Sports Minister Mahama Ayariga hinted that Ghana wanted to host the 2015 AFCON after Morocco pulled out due to the Ebola scare?
We got our people to back off quietly but the officials at CAF were not pleased one bit.
They became upset that their tournament was being hit hard by the Ghanaian populace who were simply crying out because they did not want to saddled with the burden of the Ebola virus.
A very genuine concern on the part of Ghanaian fans was found to be a little "unnice" by CAF officials and it seems the pain of the bad rub did not die down.
The lobbying, the backroom talk, the nudging and proding. Nothing selection process is complete without these elements and the decision on the hosts of AFCON 2017 was no different.
With a body like CAF where who you support is highly important, the one who had done something to help the organisation at one time or the other would get the "candy" from Papa Hayatou and his elders.
What then did Gabon do? Simple, they were there to support Equatorial Guinea when they had to scramble themselves into shape for the 2015 AFCON.
Officials from Gabon boasted about the money, tools and equipment they gave their neighbours and so, why would they not get the 2017 AFCON?
That tournament saved CAF's hide so an appropriate "Thank You" was in order.
Gabon's bid also relied on the 2012 experience they gave visitors. Some of my colleague reporters and journalists still talk about how much fun they had back then.
I am sure officials also had a ball there. Gabon's just reminded everybody of that time. The trick worked.
Ghana could only show its great bidding team while Algeria said they were ready despite calls from other nations that the skirmishes in Libya made their country not too safe.
I hope our people have understood the lessons so that next time, we will be smiling (when we are actually ready to host the tournament.)
Follow Nathan on Twitter: @nathan_quao
Consumers are busy with their daily lives, making it difficult to keep abreast of all the trends and issues that affect their wallets - household savings, fine print in contracts they sign with companies and insurance shopping, for example.
Here is a sampling of recent consumer news items to know.
Arbitration battle. The vast majority of consumers dont realize when they sign up for services and financial products, from wireless phone service to credit cards, theyre often signing away their right to sue a company in court.
Tens of millions of consumers agree - in the fine print of take- it-or-leave-it contracts - to settle disputes with arbitration, which some claim can be a kangaroo court rigged in favor of companies.
Also, arbitration clauses often kill a consumers ability to join with others in a class action.
A new report by the
After the report was released, consumer groups banded together to ask the bureau to make rules prohibiting forced arbitration clauses in contracts for financial services. The groups said that few practices are as abusive, unfair and deceptive as the widespread use of forced arbitration clauses in most consumer contracts.
The financial services industry supports arbitration.
Arbitration makes it possible for American consumers to resolve disputes in a cost-effective, fair and timely manner that often benefits all parties involved, said
Richard Foster, senior vice president of legal and regulatory affairs for the industry group Financial Services Roundtable, after the report was released. This is an important tool for the customers of financial institutions that helps keep costs down and keeps financial products, including credit cards and checking accounts, affordable.
New budgeting tool. Tools for creating a household budget abound, including Quicken and its online sister, mint.com, and YNAB at youneedabudget.com. And a blank spreadsheet or pencil and paper work too.
A new offering comes from money guru
Dave Ramsey, author of The Total Money Makeover, who has long advised people to create a household budget to avoid living paycheck to paycheck. He recently launched his own online tool.
Ramseys everydollar.com claims to make it easy to set budgets and track expenses, income and savings. It highlights Ramseys Baby Steps method for saving and debt reduction.
The basic version is free, but if you want to import bank transactions, it costs
The goal of a budget is to assign every single dollar a name, on purpose, before the month begins, Ramsey said in launching the tool. When you know where your money is going, you have control over it instead of it controlling you.
Savings tool. Digit is a service, highlighted recently by money guru and radio-show host
Clark Howard, that claims to find money in your budget and save it automatically.
Online at digit.co, the service promises to use artificial intelligence to examine your spending patterns. It automatically withdraws money from your checking account when you can afford it, usually
It will pay overdraft fees if you get hit with them as a result of the auto-savings service. You can withdraw money from the savings account with a phone text message, which transfers money back to your checking account on the next business day.
Howard points out the minor downside is that the account pays no interest - Digit keeps it, which is how it makes money. However, current interest rates are so low that bank or credit union savings accounts barely pay interest either.
Automated savings that require no effort have been shown to be effective, such as automatic contributions to a 401(k) retirement plan at work, automatic contributions to a 529 college savings plan or just a monthly bank transfer from your checking to savings.
So far, its only available in
The broader point is not which comparison tool you use - you might use several - but to compare insurance rates, which can vary widely for the exact same coverage, whether for home, auto or life. Sticking with the same company may actually result in higher rates.
The bureau will review the complaint and strip out personal information, it said. Making your story public will give more people, including you, the power to improve the financial marketplace, the bureau said.
Financial companies are none too pleased.
While the banking industry is committed to helping consumers make informed and responsible financial decisions, public disclosure of unverified consumer complaint narratives doesnt advance that goal and raises significant consumer privacy issues, said
Frank Keating, CEO of the
Using your tax refund. The
The foundation said that means debt is getting in the way of personal savings for many Americans, which is true. But if you have debt, paying it is probably a good use of a tax-refund windfall, which averages around
Home warranties. Home warranties, which cover a homes major appliances, are notorious for being consumer-unfriendly. For 10 straight years, they were the most complained about category on